Download the following free resources:
Pressure Ulcer Prevention Quick Reference Guide—developed by the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (EPUAP) and National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP)
Pressure Ulcer Treatment Quick Reference Guide—developed by the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (EPUAP) and National Pressure UlcerAdvisory Panel (NPUAP)
Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH Tool)—developed by NPUAP as a tool for monitoring changes in pressure ulcer status over time
Access this resource for clinical practice guidelines:
National Guideline Clearinghouse
At this site from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), you can:
- Review guideline syntheses—comparisons of guidelines that address similar topics.
- Do your own comparison of guidelines—generate side-by-side comparisons for two or more guidelines.
By Donna Sardina, RN, MHA, WCC, CWCMS, DWC
Starting your own consulting business is an exciting and rewarding experience: You’re the boss; you’re in charge. The question is, do you have what it takes? Along with the excitement of being the boss comes the responsibility of decisions and commitment. Your decisions will affect whether the business is a failure or a success.
To succeed in consulting, you must be an expert at recognizing problems and shaping solutions to those problems, and you must possess excellent time-management and networking skills. If you think you have what it takes to be a consultant, read on. This article gives an overview of the process.
Nature of the business
Businesses hire consultants for their expertise to help them identify problems, supplement staff, institute change, provide an objective viewpoint, or teach.
Examples of specific services you can offer include single patient reviews, serving as a member of the wound care team, making wound rounds on all patients, providing education, patient teaching, protocol development, and troubleshooting. These services are provided in many settings—long-term care, home care, long-term acute care, rehabilitation hospitals, acute-care hospitals, insurance companies, and primary-care provider groups. (more…)
By Katherine Rossiter, EJD, MSN, APRN-NP, CPNP; and Stephen Lazoritz, MD, CPE
An angry patient is like an artichoke. An artichoke is prickly and rough on the outside, but by taking time to learn how to peel its rough leaves, you reveal the tender inside. When nurtured under the right conditions, this tender inside grows to bloom into a beautiful purple flower. Patient anger is like the prickly green leaves of the artichoke, it’s a barrier to seeing “inside” and to effectively meeting the patient’s needs (more…)Read More
Study finds ultrasound therapy improves venous ulcer healing
In a study of 10 venous ulcers not responding to treatment, the use of noncontact ultrasound significantly reduced the wound area over 4 weeks of treatment.
It has been unclear exactly how ultrasound achieves its positive results. The
authors of “A prospective pilot study of ultrasound therapy effectiveness in refractory venous leg ulcers,” an article published online on February 1 by the International Wound Journal, found that patients treated with ultrasound and compression therapy had reduced inflammatory cytokines and bacterial counts, but the reduction wasn’t statistically significant.
The study found another important benefit for patients-reduced pain.
Serum albumin is not a goodindicator of nutritional status
Traditionally the standard of practice for wound care patients has been to review albumin blood levels as a measure of nutritional status and the effect of nutritional interventions. But as noted in The Role of Nutrition in Pressure Ulcer Prevention and Treatment: National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel White Paper, recent studies show that hepatic proteins (albumin, transthyretin, and transferrin) correlate with the severity of an underlying disease, not nutritional status. Moreover, many factors can alter albumin levels even when protein intake is adequate, including infection, acute stress, surgery, cortisone excess, and hydration status.
For these reasons, the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (previously known as The American Dietetic Association) recommend against using serum proteins as a nutritional assessment tool. Evaluation of lab values is just one part of the nutritional assessment process and should be considered along with other factors such as ensuring that the patient receives what is prescribed; daily food/fluid intake; changes in weight status, diagnosis, and medications; and clinical improvement in the wound.
For more information read “Serum proteins as markers of malnutrition: What are we treating?” and “Albumin as an indicator of nutritional status: Professional refresher.”
A profile of outpatients with wounds
“Wound care outcomes and associated cost among patients treated in US outpatient wound centers: Data from the US Wound Registry” a study using data from the US Wound Registry to determine outcomes and costs for outpatient wound care, found the mean patient age was 61.7 years, slightly more than half (52.3%) were male, most (71.3%) were white, and more than half (52.6%) were Medicare beneficiaries.
Other interesting findings:
- The mean number of serious comorbid conditions was 1.8.
- The most common comorbid conditions were obesity/overweight (71.3%), cardiovascular or peripheral vascular disease (51.3%), and diabetes (46.8%).
- Nearly two-thirds (65.8%) of wounds healed, with an average healing time
of 15 weeks.
- In half of the wounds that healed, patients received only moist wound care and no advanced therapeutics.
- The mean cost for wound healing was $3,927.
The authors of the article, published in March’s Wounds, analyzed 5,240 patients with 7,099 wounds in 59 hospital-based outpatient wound centers in 18 states over 5 years.
LOI index comparable to ABI for assessing PAD in patients with type 2 diabetes
The pilot study “Lanarkshire Oximetry Index as a diagnostic tool for peripheral arterial disease in type 2 diabetes,” published in Angiology, compared the gold standard ankle brachial index (ABI) to the Lanarkshire Oximetry Index (LOI) in 161 patients with type 2 diabetes. Researchers assessed the patients for peripheral artery disease (PAD, defined as ABI < 0.9) using both ABI and LOI.
Using a LOI cut-off value of 0.9., the sensitivity and specificity for PAD were 93.3% and 89.1%, respectively. The study concluded that LOI is a “potentially useful alternative diagnostic test for PAD” in patients with type 2 diabetes.
LOI is a noninvasive procedure similar to ABI; both indices indicate whether it’s safe to apply compression to the limb of a patient who has lower leg ulceration or venous hypertension. With LOI, a pulse oximeter is used in place of a hand-held Doppler to determine the index.
Start planning for World Diabetes Day
It’s not too early to begin planning for World Diabetes Day, November 14. Started by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), the day is designed to raise global awareness of diabetes.
WHO estimates that more than 346 million people worldwide have diabetes, and the number is expected to double by 2030. World Diabetes Day is celebrated on November 14 to mark the birthday of Frederick Banting who, along with Charles Best, was instrumental in the discovery of insulin in 1922.
Guidelines for PAD in patients with diabetes and foot ulceration published
February’s issue of Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews includes “Specific guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral arterial disease in a patient with diabetes and ulceration of the foot 2011,” which is based on two companion International Working Group on the Diabetic foot papers. The guidelines state that if a patient’s PAD is impairing wound healing, revascularization through bypass or endovascular technique must be considered except in a few cases such as severely frail patients. Limb salvage rates after revascularization procedures are about 80-85%, and there is ulcer healing in > 60% at 12 months.
Other points of particular interest to wound care professionals:
- Patients with PAD and a foot infection are at high risk for major limb amputation, so should be treated as a “medical emergency”, preferably within 24 hours.
- Half of patients with diabetes, a foot ulcer, and PAD die within 5 years because of higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Cardiovascular risk management should include “support for cessation of smoking, treatment of hypertension, and prescription of a statin as well as low-dose aspirin or clopidrogel.
AHA statement focuses on PAD in women
“A call to action: Women and peripheral artery disease: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association” summarizes evidence in this area and addresses risk-management issues. The statement notes that women (particularly black females) are more likely than men to experience graft failure of limb loss and calls for more research related to PAD and gender.Read More
By: Patricia A. Slachta, PhD, RN, ACNS-BC, CWOCN
Wound care has come a long way in just a few decades. With our expanded knowledge of wound healing and recent advances in treatment, we’re now able to assess wounds more accurately, recognize wound-related problems sooner, provide better interventions, and reduce morbidity.
To bring you up to date on current evidence-based wound management, this article focuses on assessing patients with chronic wounds, optimizing wound healing with effective wound-bed preparation, and selecting an appropriate dressing.
Wound chronicity and cause
Developing an appropriate plan of care hinges on conducting a thorough, accurate evaluation of both the patient and the wound. The first step is to determine whether the wound is acute or chronic.
• A chronic wound is one that fails to heal within a reasonable time—usually
• An acute wound heals more quickly, causing minimal functional loss in the part of the body with the wound.
Identifying the cause of the wound also is essential. If the wound etiology is unknown, explore the patient’s medical history (including medication history) for clues to possible causes. Also review the patient’s history for conditions that could impede wound healing. (See What factors hamper healing? by clicking the PDF icon above)
Other important aspects of assessment include evaluating the patient’s nutritional status, quantifying the level of pain (if present), and gauging the patient’s self-care abilities.
General physical appearance
Conduct a general head-to-toe physical examination, focusing on the patient’s height, weight, and skin characteristics.
Height, weight, and weight trend
On admission, the patient’s height and weight should be measured to ensure appropriate nutritional and pharmacologic management. After a weight gain or loss, various factors may complicate wound healing. For instance, involuntary weight loss and protein-energy malnutrition may occur in both acute-care and long-term-care patients.
Especially note trends in your patient’s weight. For a long-term-care patient, a 5% weight loss over 30 days or a 10% loss over 180 days is considered involuntary. Arrange for a nutritional consult for any patient with an involuntary weight loss, as adequate nutrition is essential for general well-being and wound healing. (See A wound on the mend by clicking the PDF icon above.)
Evaluate the patient’s skin color in light of ethnic background. If you note erythema—especially on a pressure point over a bony prominence—examine this area carefully for nonblanching erythema. Keep in mind that darkly pigmented skin doesn’t show such erythema and subsequent blanching, yet the patient may still be in jeopardy. So in dark-skinned patients, check for differences in skin color, temperature, or firmness compared to adjacent tissue; these differences may signify skin compromise.
Skin texture and turgor
Generally, healthy skin feels smooth and firm and has an even surface and good turgor (elasticity). To test turgor, gently grasp and pull up a fold of skin on a site such as the anterior chest below the clavicle. Does the skin return to place almost immediately after you release it, or does it stand up (“tent”)? Tenting indicates dehydration. But keep in mind that skin loses elasticity with age, so elderly patients normally have decreased turgor.
With normal circulatory status, the skin is warm and its temperature is similar bilaterally. Areas of increased warmth or coolness suggest infection or compromised circulation. Be sure to check the temperature of skin surrounding the wound.
Proper wound assessment can significantly influence patient outcome. Measure the wound carefully and document the condition of the wound bed. Remember that accurate descriptions are essential for guiding ongoing wound care. Repeat wound measurement and wound-bed assessment at least weekly, after the wound bed has been cleaned and debrided.
Keep in mind that assessing a chronic wound can be challenging. Wounds commonly have irregular shapes that can change quickly. Also, the multiple clinicians caring for the same patient may each describe the wound a bit differently.
Note the precise anatomic location of the wound, as this can influence the wound care plan. A venous ulcer on the lower leg, for instance, requires different care than an arterial ulcer in the same site or a pressure ulcer on the ischium.
Circumference and depth
Use a paper or plastic measuring device to measure wound circumference and depth in centimeters (cm) or millimeters (mm). To promote accurate assessment of healing, be sure to use the same reference points each time you measure the wound.
You can use several methods to measure circumference. The most commonly used method of measurement is done in the head to toe direction. Measure the wound at its greatest length in that direction & measure the width at a 90 degree angle, at the widest point of the wound. Then multiply these two measurements (greatest length x greatest width) to obtain the total wound area. Although such linear measurements are imprecise, they yield gross information relative to wound healing when repeated over time.
Classify wound depth as partial thickness or full thickness.
• Partial-thickness wounds are limited to the skin layers and don’t penetrate the dermis. They usually heal by reepithelialization, in which epidermal cells regenerate and cover the wound. Abrasions, lacerations, and blisters are examples of partial-thickness wounds.
• Full-thickness wounds involve tissue loss below the dermis.
(Note: Pressure ulcers usually are classified by a four-stage system and diabetic foot ulcers by a grading system. Both systems are beyond this article’s scope.)
Measure and record wound depth based on the deepest area of tissue loss. To measure depth, gently place an appropriate device (such as a foam-tipped applicator) vertically in the deepest part of the wound, and mark the applicator at the patient’s skin level. Then measure from the end of the applicator to the mark to obtain depth.
Surrounding skin and tissue
Inspect for and document any erythema, edema, or ecchymosis within 4 cm of the wound edges, and reevaluate for these signs frequently. Because compromised skin near the wound is at risk for breakdown, preventive measures may be necessary.
Appearance of wound-bed tissue
Document viable tissue in the wound bed as granulation, epithelial, muscle, or subcutaneous tissue. Granulation tissue is connective tissue containing multiple small blood vessels, which aid rapid healing of the wound bed; appearing red or pink, it commonly looks shiny and granular. Epithelial tissue consists of regenerated epidermal cells across the wound bed; it may be shiny and silvery.
Check for nonviable tissue (also called necrotic, slough, or fibrin slough tissue), which may impede wound healing. It may vary in color from black or tan to yellow, and may adhere firmly or loosely to the wound bed. (See Picturing a necrotic wound by clicking the PDF icon above.)
Be sure to document the range of colors visible throughout the wound. Identify the color that covers the largest percentage of the wound bed. This color—and its significance—guide dressing selection.
Document the amount, color, and odor of exudate (drainage) in the wound. Exudate with high protease levels and low growth factor levels may impede healing.
If the wound is covered by an occlusive dressing, assess exudate after the wound has been cleaned. Describe the amount of exudate as none, minimal, moderate, or heavy.
Describe exudate color as serous, serosanguineous, sanguineous, or purulent. Serous exudate is clear and watery, with no debris or blood present. Serosanguineous exudate is clear, watery, and tinged pink or pale red, denoting presence of blood. Sanguineous exudate is bloody, indicating active bleeding. Purulent exudate may range from yellow to green to brown or tan.
Describe wound odor as absent, faint, moderate, or strong. Note whether the odor is present only during dressing removal, if it disappears after the dressing is discarded, or if it permeates the room.
Wound edges indicate the epithelialization trend and suggest the possible cause and chronicity of the wound. The edges should attach to the wound bed. Edges that are rolled (a condition called epibole) indicate a chronic wound, in which epithelial cells are unable to adhere to a moist, healthy wound bed and can’t migrate across and resurface the wound.
Undermining and tracts
Gently probe around the wound edges and in the wound bed to check for undermining and tracts. Undermining, which may occur around the edges, presents as a space between the intact skin and wound bed (resembling a roof over part of the wound). It commonly results from shear forces in conjunction with sustained pressure. A tract, or tunnel, is a channel extending from one part of the wound through subcutaneous tissue or muscle to another part.
Measure the depth of a tract or undermining by inserting an appropriate device into the wound as far as it will go without forcing it. Then mark the skin on the outside where you can see or feel the applicator tip. Document your findings based on a clock face, with 12 o’clock representing the patient’s head and 6 o’clock denoting the feet. For instance, you might note “2.0-cm undermining from 7:00 to 9:00 position.”
Ask the patient to quantify the level of pain caused by the wound, using the pain scale designated by your facility. Find out which pain-management techniques have relieved your patient’s pain in the past; as appropriate, incorporate these into a pain-management plan. Reevaluate the patient’s pain level regularly.
An evolving science, wound-bed preparation is crucial for minimizing or removing barriers to healing. The goal is to minimize factors that impair healing and maximize the effects of wound care. The key elements of wound-bed preparation are controlling bioburden and maintaining moisture balance. (For online resources on wound-bed preparation and other wound-care topics, see Where to get more information by clicking the PDF icon above.)
Necrotic tissue and exudate harbor bacteria. A wound’s bioburden—the number of contaminating microbes—contributes to poor healing. All chronic wounds are considered contaminated or colonized, but not necessarily infected. In a colonized wound, healing is impeded as bacteria compete for nutrients; also, bacteria have harmful byproducts. To control bioburden, the wound must be cleaned and necrotic tissue must be debrided.
Cleaning the wound. Clean the wound before assessing it and applying a dressing. Use a noncytotoxic agent (typically, potable water, normal saline irrigating solution, or an appropriate wound-cleaning agent). Antiseptic solutions generally aren’t recommended for wound irrigation or dressings because they’re toxic to fibroblasts and other wound-repairing cells. If you must use such a solution, make sure it’s well diluted.
To ensure gentle cleaning or irrigation, pour solution over the wound bed or gently flush the wound with solution (using a 60-mL catheter-tip syringe) until the drainage clears. Know that pressurized irrigation techniques and whirlpool therapy aren’t recommended for wound cleaning because they disturb cell proliferation in the wound bed.
Debriding the wound. Debridement removes slough and necrotic tissue. Nonselective debridement techniques remove any type of tissue within the wound bed, whereas selective methods remove only necrotic tissue. (See Wound debridement techniques by clicking the PDF icon below.)
Maintaining moisture balance
To maintain moisture balance in the wound bed, you must manage exudate and keep the wound bed moist. The proper dressing (which may stay in place for days or longer) supports moist wound healing and exudate management. To minimize fluid pooling, a drain may be inserted into the wound. Negative-pressure wound therapy also may aid removal of excess exudate.
Choosing an appropriate dressing
The wound dressing plays a major role in maintaining moisture balance. Dressing selection is challenging because of the large number and variety of dressings available. Each product has specific actions, benefits, and drawbacks, so determining which dressing best suits the patient’s needs is a multifaceted process.
Dressing choice depends on such factors as wound type and appearance, exudate, presence or absence of pain, and required dressing change frequency. (See Dressings Options by clicking the PDF icon above.)
In a traditional dressing, gauze is applied in layers. The initial (contact) layer in the wound bed absorbs drainage and wicks it to the next layer; most often, this layer consists of woven cotton gauze or synthetic gauze. Remove the gauze gently, because it may be stuck to the wound or incision (especially if the gauze is cotton). For easier removal, moisten the dressing with normal saline solution to loosen it.
With a traditional dressing, the cover layer or secondary dressing is an abdominal pad with a “no-strike-through” layer next to the outside of the dressing. Be aware that wet-to-dry dressings are highly discouraged for their nonselective debriding effect and inability to provide a moist wound bed.
Reassess the patient’s wound at least weekly (after preparing the wound bed and dressing the wound) to determine healing progress. Keep in mind that wound-care management is a collaborative effort. Once you’ve assessed the patient, discuss your findings and subsequent wound management with other members of the team.
Wound care wisdom
Getting wiser about wound care will help your patients achieve good outcomes. Poor wound healing can be frustrating to patients, family members, and healthcare providers alike. Chronic wounds may necessitate lifestyle changes and lead to severe physical consequences ranging from infection to loss of function and even death. By performing careful assessment, tailoring patients’ wound care to wound etiology, and using evidence-based protocols to manage wounds, you can promote speedier wound healing, help lower morbidity, and improve quality of life.
Bryant RA, Nix DP. Acute and Chronic Wounds: Current Management Concepts. 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2011.
Gardener SE, Frantz R, Hillis SL, Park H, Scherubel M. Diagnostic validity of semiquantitative swab cultures. Wounds. 2007;(19)2:31-38.
Krasner DL, Rodeheaver GT, Sibbald RG. Chronic Wound Care: A Clinical Source Book for Healthcare Professionals. 4th ed. Wayne, PA: HMP Communications; 2007.
Langemo DK, Brown G. Skin fails too: acute, chronic, and end-stage skin failure. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2006;19(4):206-211.
Langemo DK, Anderson J, Hanson D, Hunter S, Thompson P. Measuring wound length, width, and area: which technique? Adv Skin Wound Care. 2008;21:42-45.
Milne C, Armand OC, Lassie M. A comparison of collagenase to hydrogel dressings in wound debridement. Wounds. 2010:22(11):270-274.
National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel and European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel. Prevention and Treatment of Pressure Ulcers: Clinical Practice Guideline. Washington, DC: National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel; 2009.
Ovington LG. Hanging wet-to-dry dressings out to dry. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2002;15(2):79-86.
Sibbald RG, Coutts P, Woo KY. Reduction of bacterial burden and pain in chronic wounds using a new polyhexamethylene biguanide antimicrobial foam dressing—clinical trial results. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2011;24(2):78-84.
Solway DR, Consalter M, Levinson DJ. Microbial cellulose wound dressing in the treatment of skin tears in the frail elderly. Wounds. 2010:22(1):17-19.
Wound Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society. Guideline for Prevention and Management of Pressure Ulcers. Mt. Laurel, NJ: Author; 2010
Patricia A. Slachta is a Clinical Nurse Specialist at The Queens Medical Center in Honolulu, Hawaii and an adjunct nursing instructor at the Technical College of the Lowcountry in Beaufort, South Carolina.Read More
By: Darlene Hanson, MS, RN, Pat Thompson, MS, RN, Diane Langemo, PhD, RN, FAAN, Susan Hunter, MS, RN, and Julie Anderson, PhD, RN, CCRC
Faced with the nursing diagnosis of Impaired skin integrity, we’ve all written care plans that state our goal as “redistributing or reducing pressure.” But how do we do that? Which measures do we take? And how do we know that our interventions have relieved pressure? Do we rely solely on a skin assessment? A patient’s self-assessment of comfort? What if the patient can’t feel pressure relief because of neurologic impairment?
The answers to these questions may be that nurses should use pressure mapping, a tool used by occupational and physical therapists to determine seat-interface pressures and by other healthcare professionals to perform foot assessments. (more…)Read More