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Clincal Notes: Analysis, Osteomyelitis, sickle cell, maggot

Value of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in wound care

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses—literature-based recommendations for evaluating strengths, weaknesses, and clinical value,” in Ostomy Wound Management, discusses evidence-based practice and how systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) can help improve management of wound care patients.

The authors of the article explain evidence-based practice and provide useful definitions for key terms. They then provide a list of eight questions to use when evaluating SRs and practical tips such as how to search for SR and MA studies. The article finishes with a list of eight inter­ventions supported by the most evidence: hydro­colloidal dressings, honey, biosynthetic dressings, iodine complexes, silver compounds, hydrogels, foam dressings, and negative pressure wound therapy. (more…)

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Clinical Notes: Modified Braden Risk Score, dialysis patients, plantar

CN_Risk

Modified Braden risk score proposed

A study in Ostomy Wound Management states the risk classification of patients using Braden Scale scores should comprise three (rather than five) levels: high risk, with a total score ≤11; moderate risk, with a total score of 12 to 16; and mild risk, with a total score ≥17.

The retrospective analysis of consecutively admitted patients at risk for pressure ulcer to an acute-care facility included 2,625 patients, with an age range from 1 month to 98 years; 3.1% developed a pressure ulcer. (more…)

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Clinical Notes

CN_Socks

Mild compression diabetic socks safe and effective for lower extremity edema

Diabetic socks with mild compression can reduce lower extremity edema in patients with diabetes without adversely affecting arterial circulation, according to a randomized control trial presented at the American Diabetes Association 75th Scientific Sessions Conference. (more…)

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2015 Journal: July – Aug Vol. 4 No. 4

Wound Care Advisor Journal 2015 vol4 No4

Preventing pressure ulcers in pediatric patients

As wound care clinicians, we are trained—and expected—to help heal wounds in patients of any age and to achieve positive outcomes. Basic wound-healing principles apply to all patients, whatever their age or size. The specific anatomy and physiology of vulnerable pediatric patients, however, requires detailed wound care. Unfortunately, little evidence-based research exists to support and direct the care of pediatric patients with pressure ulcers. This article describes efforts to reduce pressure ulcers in pediatric patients at Driscoll Children’s Hospital (DCH) in Corpus Christi, Texas.

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A collaborative approach to wound care and lymphedema therapy: Part 2

By Erin Fazzari, MPT, CLT, CWS, DWC Have you seen legs like these in your practice? These legs show lymphedema and chronic wounds before treatment (left image) and after treatment (right image) with complex decongestive therapy (CDT)—the gold standard of lymphedema care. The patient benefited from multidisciplinary collaboration between wound care and lymphedema therapists.

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deep tissue injury

Case study: Early detection and treatment resolves a deep tissue injury

By Todd Zortman, RN, WCC, and James Malec, PhD Pressure ulcers are a chronic healthcare burden for both patients and pro­viders. Over 2.5 million patients in the United States are affected annually by pressure ulcers, with nearly 60,000 of those cases directly resulting in death. From a provider’s perspective, the cost of individual care ranges anywhere from $500 to $70,000…

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short stay facility

Case study: Working under a time crunch in a short-stay facility

By Janet Wolfson, PT, CWS, CLT-LANA After landing my dream job as the wound care coordinator at an inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF), I found myself trying to determine how much healing could be achieved for our more challenging patients, given the constraints of reimbursement and what can be done in the typical 10 to 14 days of a patient stay.…

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Amputation Risk Score

Clinical Notes: Revascularization, Amputation Risk Score

Leg revascularization fails to improve outcomes in nursing home patients Lower-extremity revascularization often fails to improve outcomes in nursing home patients, according to an article in JAMA Internal Medicine. “Functional outcomes after lower extremity revascularization in nursing home residents: A national cohort study” found that few patients are alive and ambulatory a year after surgery, and those who are alive…

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Clinician Resources: Nutrition, Treatment Algorithms, Pressure Ulcer Prevention

Check out these resources for your practice. Be a nutrition champion One in three patients enters a hospital malnourished. Fight malnutrition by viewing six short videos from the Alliance to Advance Patient Nutrition, including “Rapidly Implement Nutrition Interventions” and “Recognize and Diagnose All Patients at Risk of Malnutrition.” The videos show how to collaborate with the care team to become…

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Comprehensive skin assessment

By Nancy Morgan, RN, BSN, MBA, WOC, WCC, DWC, OMS Each issue, Apple Bites brings you a tool you can apply in your daily practice. Here’s an overview of performing a comprehensive skin assessment. In the healthcare setting, a comprehensive skin assessment is a process in which the entire skin of a patient is examined for abnormalities. It requires looking…

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From the Editor: Tips on staging pressure ulcers

By Donna Sardina, RN, MHA, WCC, CWCMS, DWC, OMS Pressure ulcers have been a health concern for a long time—since at least 5,000 years ago, when evidence of a pressure ulcer was found on an ancient Egyptian mummy. But not until 1975 did the staging classification system we’re familiar with begin. This system was designed to make things easier by…

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Immobility as the root cause of pressure ulcers

By Jeri Lundgren, BSN, RN, PHN, CWS, CWCN Many factors can contribute to the formation of a pressure ulcer, but it’s rare that one develops in an active, mobile patient. As the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel 2014 guidelines state, “Pressure ulcers cannot form without loading, or pressure on the tissue. Extended periods of lying or sitting on a particular…

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Motivational interviewing: A collaborative path to change

By Sharon Morrison, MAT, RN Michael had diabetes and a history of elevated blood glucose levels. A long-time drinker, he seemed to have no interest in giving up the habit. I met him while working as a diabetes nurse educator for the Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program, traveling from shelter to shelter to help persons with diabetes set…

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Preventing pressure ulcers in pediatric patients

By Roxana Reyna, BSN, RNC-NIC, WCC, CWOCN As wound care clinicians, we are trained—and expected—to help heal wounds in patients of any age and to achieve positive outcomes. Basic wound-healing principles apply to all patients, whatever their age or size. The specific anatomy and physiology of vulnerable pediatric patients, however, requires detailed wound care. Unfortunately, little evidence-based research exists to…

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2015 Journal: July – Aug Vol. 4 No. 4

Click here to access the digital edition

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Case study: Working under a time crunch in a short-stay facility

short stay facility

By Janet Wolfson, PT, CWS, CLT-LANA

After landing my dream job as the wound care coordinator at an inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF), I found myself trying to determine how much healing could be achieved for our more challenging patients, given the constraints of reimbursement and what can be done in the typical 10 to 14 days of a patient stay.

Here’s an example of how I worked with our team to help one of these challenging patients. (more…)

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Providing evidence-based care for patients with lower-extremity cellulitis

By Darlene Hanson, PhD, RN; Diane Langemo, PhD, RN, FAAN; Patricia Thompson, MS, RN; Julie Anderson, PhD, RN; and Keith Swanson, MD

Cellulitis is an acute, painful, and potentially serious spreading bacterial skin infection that affects mainly the subcutaneous and dermal layers. Usually of an acute onset, it’s marked by redness, warmth, swelling, and tenderness. Borders of the affected skin are characteristically irregular. Although cellulitis may occur in many body areas, this article discusses the most common location—the lower limb. (more…)

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2015 Journal: May – June Vol. 4 No. 3

Wound Care Advisor Journal Vol4 No3

Get the ‘SKINNI’ on reducing pressure ulcers

Like many hospitals, Houston Methodist San Jacinto Hospital uses national benchmarks such as the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI®) to measure quality outcomes. Based on benchmark reports that showed an increased trend of pressure ulcers in critically ill patients in our hospital, the clinical nurses in our Critical Care Shared Governance Unit-Based Council (CCSGUBC) identified an improvement opportunity.

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A collaborative approach to wound care and lymphedema therapy: Part 1

By Erin Fazzari, MPT, CLT, CWS, DWC Have you seen legs like those shown in the images below in your practice? These images show lymphedema and venous stasis ulcers, illustrating the importance of collaboration between clinicians in two disciplines: lymphedema and wound care.

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Ankle-brachial index: A dirty word?

Donna Sardina, RN, MHA, WCC, CWCMS, DWC, OMS Silence, roving eyes, fidgeting, excuses, a quick subject change—these are typical responses from healthcare clinicians when asked, “What’s the patient’s ankle-brachial index?” You’d think someone had just uttered a dirty word. The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a key component of the lower-extremity vascular exam, recommended and in some cases mandated by numerous…

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Clinical Notes: diabetes, LMW heparin, dressings, lymphedema

Factors affecting medication adherence in patients with diabetes identified Factors associated with better adherence to antidiabetic medications taken by patients with diabetes include older age, male sex, higher education, higher income, use of mail-order vs. retail pharmacies, primary care vs. nonendocrinology specialist prescribers, higher daily total pill burden, and lower out-of-pocket costs.

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Clinician Resources: Nutrition, Workplace Violence, Pressure Injuries

Learn about resources useful to your practice. Nutrition and pressure ulcers Advances in Skin & Wound Care has published “The role of nutrition for pressure ulcer management: National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, and Pan Pacific Pressure Injury Alliance White Paper.” The white paper includes evidence-based nutrition strategies for preventing and managing pressure ulcers.

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Creating high-performance interprofessional teams

By Terry Eggenberger, PhD, RN, CNE, CNL; Rose O. Sherman, EdD, RN, NEA-BC, FAAN; and Kathryn Keller, PhD, RN Kate Summer, a wound care clinician in a urban hospital, is leading an initiative to reduce pressure ulcers. She knows from experience that more effective communication and collaborative planning by the interdisciplinary team managing these patients is crucial for reducing pressure…

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Get the ‘SKINNI’ on reducing pressure ulcers

By Cindy Barefield, BSN, RN-BC, CWOCN Like many hospitals, Houston Methodist San Jacinto Hospital uses national benchmarks such as the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI®) to measure quality outcomes. Based on benchmark reports that showed an increased trend of pressure ulcers in critically ill patients in our hospital, the clinical nurses in our Critical Care Shared Governance Unit-Based…

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Helping patients overcome ostomy challenges

By Beth Hoffmire Heideman, MSN, RN No one wants an ostomy, but sometimes it’s required to save a patient’s life. As ostomy specialists, our role is to assess and intervene for patients with a stoma or an ostomy to enhance their quality of life. We play an active role in helping patients perform self-care for their ostomy and adjust to…

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Helping patients with lower-extremity disease benefit from exercise

By Jeri Lundgren, BSN, RN, PHN, CWS, CWCN Research has shown that exercise can help ease symptoms in patients with arterial insufficiency, venous insufficiency, neuropathic disease, or a combination of these conditions. Here’s what you need to know to ensure your patients reap the most benefits from exercise.

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Moldable ostomy barrier rings and strips

By Nancy Morgan, RN, BSN, MBA, WOC, WCC, DWC, OMS Each issue, Apple Bites brings you a tool you can apply in your daily practice. Here’s a brief overview on moldable, bendable, and stretchable adhesive rings and strips used to improve the seal around a stoma. Benefits Adhesive rings and strips can be an alternative to stoma paste for filling…

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Providing evidence-based care for patients with lower-extremity cellulitis

By Darlene Hanson, PhD, RN; Diane Langemo, PhD, RN, FAAN; Patricia Thompson, MS, RN; Julie Anderson, PhD, RN; and Keith Swanson, MD Cellulitis is an acute, painful, and potentially serious spreading bacterial skin infection that affects mainly the subcutaneous and dermal layers. Usually of an acute onset, it’s marked by redness, warmth, swelling, and tenderness. Borders of the affected skin…

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2015 Journal: May – June Vol. 4 No. 3
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Role of rehab in wound care

 By Bill Richlen, PT, WCC, DWC, and Denise Richlen, PT, WCC, DCCT

How many times have you heard someone say, “I didn’t know PTs did wound care”? Statements like this aren’t uncommon. The role of physical therapists (PTs), occupational therapists, and speech therapists in wound care is commonly misunderstood by and even a mystery to many clinicians. Sometimes the therapists themselves are confused about reimbursement or what their role on the wound care team can be. (more…)

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Clinical Notes : Diabetes, medical honey, silver dressings, clostridium

Guidelines for optimal off-loading to prevent diabetic foot ulcers 

The management of diabetic foot ulcers through optimal off-loading,” published in the Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, presents consensus guidelines and states the “evidence is clear” that off-loading increases healing of diabetic foot ulcers.

The article calls for increased use of off-loading and notes that “current evidence favors the use of nonremovable casts or fixed ankle walking braces as optimum off-loading modalities.” The authors reviewed about 90 studies. (more…)

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Clinical Notes

Diabetes carries high economic burden

According to a study published in Diabetes Care, the economic burden associated with diagnosed diabetes (all ages) and undiagnosed diabetes, gestational diabetes, and prediabetes (adults) exceeded $322 billion in 2012, amounting to an economic burden exceeding $1,000 for each American. (more…)

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2014 Journal: November – December Vol. 3 No. 6

Wound Care Advisor Journal Vol3 No6

Case study: Bariatric patient with serious wounds and multiple complications

Despite the healthcare team’s best efforts, not all hospitalizations go smoothly. This article describes the case of an obese patient who underwent bariatric surgery. After a 62-day hospital stay, during which a multidisciplinary team collaborated to deliver the best care possible, he died. Although the outcome certainly wasn’t what we wanted, we’d like to share his story to raise awareness of the challenges of caring for bariatric patients.

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pressure ulcer tracking tool

An easy tool for tracking pressure ulcer data

By David L. Johnson, NHA, RAC-CT As a senior quality improvement specialist with IPRO, the Quality Improvement Organization for New York State over the past 11 years, I’ve been tasked with helping skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) embrace the process of continuous quality improvement. A necessary component of this effort has been to collect, understand, and analyze timely and accurate data.…

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Building an effective pressure ulcer prevention program

By Jeri Lundgren, BSN, RN, PHN, CWS, CWCN As a wound care nurse, do you feel the weight of the world on your shoulders when trying to implement a pressure ulcer prevention program? Many staff members think it’s up to the wound care nurse alone to implement the program. However, a successful program requires involvement from all staff and is…

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Case study: Bariatric patient with serious wounds and multiple complications

By Hedy Badolato, RD, CSR, CNSC; Denise Dacey, RD, CDE; Kim Stevens, BSN, RN, CCRN; Jen Fox, BSN, RN, CCRN; Connie Johnson, MSN, RN, WCC, LLE, OMS, DAPWCA; Hatim Youssef, DO, FCCP; and Scott Sinner, MD, FACP Despite the healthcare team’s best efforts, not all hospitalizations go smoothly. This article describes the case of an obese patient who underwent bariatric…

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Clinical Notes: Radiation & Lymphedema, Decline in Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Radiation and lymphedema Radiation therapy doesn’t increase the incidence of lymphedema in patients with node-negative breast cancer, according to research presented at the American Society for Radiation Oncology’s 56th Annual Meeting held this fall.

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Clinician Resources: United Ostomy Association, NGC, NCCN, Experts

Here is a list of valuable ostomy resources, some suggested by our colleagues who follow Wound Care Advisor on Twitter. United Ostomy Association of America The United Ostomy Association of America provides comprehensive resources for patients, including information about the types of ostomies and issues related to nutrition, sexuality, and travel. Much of the information is also available in Spanish…

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Developing a successful program for wound care in the home

By Stanley A. Rynkiewicz III, MSN, RN, WCC, DWC, CCS Developing a successful wound care program requires a strong commitment and a willingness to learn. Our experience with creating such a program at Deer Meadows Home Health and Support Services, LLC (DMHHSS), a nonprofit home-care facility in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, may help others build a similar wound care program and reap…

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Linear wound measurement basics

By Nancy Morgan, RN, BSN, MBA, WOC, WCC, DWC, OMS Each issue, Apple Bites brings you a tool you can apply in your daily practice. Measurement of wounds is an important component of wound assessment and provides baseline measurements, enables monitoring of healing rates, and helps distinguish among wounds that are static, deteriorating, or improving. All alterations in skin integrity,…

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Make your patient-teaching idea a patented reality

By Joy Hooper, BSN, RN, CWOCN, OMS Have you ever had an idea for improving patient care that you wanted to market? You may have lacked confidence or know-how, as I once did. But one patient, a crafty idea, and a trip to Walmart put me on the path to becoming a successful nurse entrepreneur.

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Maggots Wound Care

Using maggots in wound care: Part 2

By Ronald A. Sherman, MD; Sharon Mendez, RN, CWS; and Catherine McMillan, BA Note From the Editor: This is the second of two articles on maggot therapy. The first article appeared in our July/August 2014 issue, Read part 1 here. Whether your practice is an acute-care setting, a clinic, home care, or elsewhere, maggot debridement therapy (MDT) can prove to…

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What to do when someone pushes your buttons

By Laura L. Barry, MBA, MMsc, and Maureen Sirois, MSN, RN, CEN, ANP Why is it that some things don’t bother us, while other things catapult us from an emotional 0 to 60 mph in a heartbeat? We all know what it feels like when someone says or does something that gets our juices flowing. We feel it in our…

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When should we take “No” for an answer?

By: Donna Sardina, RN, MHA, WCC, CWCMS, DWC, OMS Have you ever had a patient yell “Get out of my room!” or “Don’t touch me! I don’t want to be turned”? How about “No! Don’t put those compression stockings on my legs!” or “No, I’m not going to wear those ugly orthopedic shoes!” or “No way. I can’t stay in bed.…

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2014 Journal: November – December Vol. 3 No. 6

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2014 Journal: September – October Vol. 3 No. 5

Wound Care Advisor Journal Vol3 No5

Managing venous stasis ulcers

Venous disease, which encompasses all conditions caused by or related to diseased or abnormal veins, affects about 15% of adults. When mild, it rarely poses a problem, but as it worsens, it can become crippling and chronic.

Chronic venous disease often is overlooked by primary and cardiovascular care providers, who underestimate its magnitude and impact. Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) causes hypertension in the venous system of the legs, leading to various pathologies that involve pain, swelling, edema, skin changes, stasis dermatitis, and ulcers. An estimated 1% of the U.S. population suffers from venous stasis ulcers (VSUs). Causes of VSUs include inflammatory processes resulting in leukocyte activation, endothelial damage, platelet aggregation, and intracellular edema. Preventing VSUs is the most important aspect of CVI management.

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Becoming a wound care diplomat

By Bill Richlen, PT, WCC, CWS, DWC, and Denise Stetter, PT, WCC, DCCT The Rolling Stones may have said it best when they sang, “You can’t always get what you want,” a sentiment that also applies to wound care. A common frustration among certified wound care clinicians is working with other clinicians who have limited current wound care education and…

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Best of the best, the sequel

By Donna Sardina, RN, MHA, WCC, CWCMS, DWC, OMS Welcome to our second annual “Best of the Best” issue of Wound Care Advisor, the official journal of the National Alliance of Wound Care and Ostomy (NAWCO). This may be the first time you have held Wound Care Advisor in your hands because normally we come to you via the Internet.…

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Clinical Notes: Wound Photography, Lymphedema, GI Complaints

Wound photography may motivate patients Having patients view photographs of their wounds can motivate them to become more involved in managing those wounds, according to a study in International Wound Journal, particularly when wounds are in difficult-to-see locations.

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Clinician Resources: Opioid-Prescribing, Diabetes, Pressure Injuries

Here are a variety of resources you might want to explore. Considering opioid-prescribing practices Healthcare providers’ prescribing patterns for opioids vary considerably by state, according to a report in Vital Signs from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Here are some facts from the report: • Each day, 46 people die from an overdose of prescription painkillers in…

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safe negative-pressure wound therapy

Guidelines for safe negative-pressure wound therapy

By Ron Rock MSN, RN, ACNS-BC Since its introduction almost 20 years ago, negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has become a leading technology in the care and management of acute, chronic, dehisced, traumatic wounds; pressure ulcers; diabetic ulcers; orthopedic trauma; skin flaps; and grafts. NPWT applies controlled suction to a wound using a suction pump that delivers intermittent, continuous, or variable…

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dietary protein intake promotes wound healing

How dietary protein intake promotes wound healing

By Nancy Collins, PhD, RD, LD/N, FAPWCA, and Allison Schnitzer Nutrition is a critical factor in the wound healing process, with adequate protein intake essential to the successful healing of a wound. Patients with both chronic and acute wounds, such as postsurgical wounds or pressure ulcers, require an increased amount of protein to ensure complete and timely healing of their…

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How to apply a spiral wrap

By Nancy Morgan, RN, BSN, MBA, WOC, WCC, DWC, OMS Each issue, Apple Bites brings you a tool you can apply in your daily practice. Description The spiral wrap is a technique used for applying compression bandaging. Procedure Here’s how to apply a spiral wrap to the lower leg. Please note that commercial compression wraps come with specific instructions for…

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how to assess wound exudate

How to assess wound exudate

By Nancy Morgan, RN, BSN, MBA, WOC, WCC, DWC, OMS Each issue, Apple Bites brings you a tool you can apply in your daily practice. Exudate (drainage), a liquid produced by the body in response to tissue damage, is present in wounds as they heal. It consists of fluid that has leaked out of blood vessels and closely resembles blood…

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wound care formulary and guideline

How to set up an effective wound care formulary and guideline

By Jeri Lundgren, BSN, RN, PHN, CWS, CWCN Navigating through the thousands of wound care products can be overwhelming and confusing. I suspect that if you checked your supply rooms and treatment carts today, you would find stacks of unused products. You also would probably find that many products were past their expiration dates and that you have duplicate products…

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It takes a village: Leading a wound team

By Jennifer Oakley, BS, RN, WCC, DWC, OMS I used to think I could do it alone. I took the wound care certification course, passed the certification exam, and took all of my new knowledge—and my new WCC credential—back to the long-term care facility where I worked. I was ready to change the world. It didn’t take me long to…

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Managing chronic venous leg ulcers — what’s the latest evidence?

Managing venous stasis ulcers

By Kulbir Dhillon, MSN, FNP, APNP, WCC Venous disease, which encompasses all conditions caused by or related to diseased or abnormal veins, affects about 15% of adults. When mild, it rarely poses a problem, but as it worsens, it can become crippling and chronic. Chronic venous disease often is overlooked by primary and cardiovascular care providers, who underestimate its magnitude…

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The DIME approach to peristomal skin care

By Catherine R. Ratliff, PhD, APRN-BC, CWOCN, CFCN It’s estimated that about 70% of the 1 million ostomates in the United States and Canada will experience or have experienced stomal or peristomal complications. Peristomal complications are more common, although stomal complications (for example, retraction, stenosis, and mucocutaneous separation) can often contribute to peristomal problems by making it difficult to obtain…

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2014 Journal: September – October Vol. 3 No. 5
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